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3 Theoretical model for the analysis outsourcing of the Procurement

3.1.5 Empirical probation degree

Numerous studies of the transaction cost theory show the multiple ranges of application, in which their empirical probation degree can be examined.
In principle the transaction cost theory for each problem, which can be formulated direct or indirect as contract situation, can be considered. 61
Oldest and most frequent application within the economical range refers to the Make or Buy decision and to the vertical integration. 62

One differentiates between backward integration - which corresponds to the internal admission of products or services from pre-aged production stages - and forward integration, by which one understands the admission of products or services from stored sales levels (e.g. distribution). 63
In the following one important associated studies are listed, whereby no requirement insists on completeness.
Monteverde and Teece supply a core study over the backward integration with the application of the transaction cost theory to the Make or Buy decision for assembly components of two enterprises in the American automobile industry. 64
Their determination refers to 133 components and results in a positive relationship between specific investments and enterprise-internal production. 65
Also masts, Meehan and Snyder as well as Walker and webers analyze the acquisition of the components for the automobile industry of the United States. With the 118 examined components first show that only the human specific investments possess a positive relationship to the percentage of the internally produced parts. 66
Second determine the Make or Buy decision in a large car manufacturer. According to its result it is affected by the strength of the competition pressure and the uncertainty. 67
Further concern themselves Levy, Lieberman, masts and masts, Meehan and Snyder with the Make or Buy decision for production inputs. Levy examines 69 factories from 37 industrial ranges.
After its determination the companies with higher extent at specific investments under uncertainty are vertically more integrated. 68
Lieberman regards 203 American manufacturers of chemistry products. They look for the vertical integration, in order to avoid the out specific investments the following dependence, whereby the probability of integration increases with higher input costs. 69
1887 component of a space travel system analyze masts. The parts, which require high specific investments under uncertainty, are produced internally with higher probability. 70
1989 examines masts, Meehan and Snyder of 74 parts for the production of a ship.
Their result reads that specific investments and uncertainty stand in positive relation to the self-production of these parts, although this effect comes mainly due to the reduction of the internal organization costs. 71
These examples give an overview of application to the transaction cost theory in the production department. In the logistics range, which is more applicable in the context of this work, Matz accomplished two interesting studies.
In first 138 carriers are taken under the magnifying glass, in order to answer the question whether specific investments, uncertainty and transaction frequency the transportation functions to affect. The conclusion is that only human specific investments have a positive relationship to the use of own carriers. 72
In the case of the 147 examined factories of its second study results a negative relationship between specific investments and probability outsourcing of camp functions, while the transaction frequency stands in positive relation to it. 73
From this list the reader can determine the empirical probation degree of the transaction cost theory. The author refers afterwards to the words of Williamson: "to be over safe, the transaction cost theory becomes, as everything else, from more and better empirical work to profit. However I do not hesitate to state that the transaction cost theory is an empirically successful theory." 74

61 Vgl. Williamson (1985), P. ix.
62 Vgl. Beef/heath (1997), P. 32.
63 Vgl. Steinmann/Schreyoegg (1993), P. 31.
64 Vgl. Beef/heath (1997), P. 32.
65 Vgl. Monteverde/Teece (1982).
66 Vgl. Masten/Meehan/Snyder (1989).
67 Vgl. Milling he/weber (1984) and milling he/weber (1987).
68 Vgl. Levy (1985).
69 Vgl. Lieberman (1991).
70 Vgl. Masts (1984).
71 Vgl. Masten/Meehan/Snyder (1991).
72 Vgl. Maltz (1993).
73 Vgl. Maltz (1994).
74 Williamson (1999), P. 1092.


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